Custom Biology T-shirt Design Competition

Why Order Bulk Custom T-Shirts From

There are studies that show employees are more motivated to give their best if they wear clothing branded with their company logo. As strange as it may seem, there is a seed of truth in this, and that’s probably why many business owners offer their teams such branded gifts every now and then. For them and for all those who want to surprise their friends with a cool and easy to wear gift, is the place to go. Here you can have your T-shirts printed and delivered to you in the shortest possible time, so that you don’t even have to leave your office to do it.

There are two branding solutions available at Shirt Logic. You can have your logo or design printed on the fabric or embroidered. If you only need a small logo, perhaps embroidery would look more stylish. In case of bigger designs, you should go for printing. Anyway, the quality is going to be the same. The Shirt Logic team uses the best printing machines and technology, thus being able to deliver a great quality work.

The process of ordering your custom T-shirts is simple and straightforward. If you already have your design, you can upload it directly on the website. If you don’t have a design, you have the chance of using a professional designer to create it. All designers in this team have many years of experience, so they know their stuff very well. If you can’t manage the automated ordering process by yourself, you can call the help line displayed on the website and get professional guidance. This is also a free line, so again you won’t have any additional costs, even if you get human assistance.

Cheap Bulk Embroidery Designer

Another thing you need to know is that the prices are very competitive. If you place a bulk order, you are going to get wholesaler prices. Moreover, you can benefit from the screen setups and embroidery digitizing setups free of charge, so there won’t be any hidden costs. Shipping is free regardless the number of T-shirts you order. Order cheap embroidery here:

Custom T-shirts from Shirt Logic are very good in terms of fabric quality. You can wear them for a very long time and wash them multiple times without problems. Such a gift can bring a smile on the face of the recipient, especially if you take time and craft your messages carefully. They can also be a great idea for children or teenagers. If your teen wants to throw a birthday party, you can surprise him by producing some cool T-shirts for him and all his friends to take away when the party is over. This will be a very nice souvenir and will make you look like the coolest parent ever. Besides, it won’t affect your finances too much, as you could hardly find anything as cool at a similar price.

If you need custom T-shirts, you can start by requesting a price quotation directly on and see if it fits your budget.

Why You Should Consider Replacing Potato Chips With Apples

Snacking is of great importance to the body. Unfortunately, many people don’t know that some celebrities consume snacks as a way to help them cope with their craving which can potentially lead them to consume lots of foodstuffs later. A number of researches that have been conducted have concluded that people who eat 6 times daily tend to have a much faster metabolism than those who starve themselves as a way to lose weight. Most importantly, it’s advisable to know what types of snacks can be eaten in order to attain not only a fit but a healthy body.

Consider Dropping That Bag of Potato Chips

There is no doubt about the fact that food cravings are the hardest to deal with particularly those who have developed unhealthy eating lifestyles over the years. Interestingly, some people can consume a bag of potato chips in just no time. Well, this may sound as something that’s okay but this type of eating habit is not a healthy one for those who want to shed excess weight. It’s also important to pay close attention to how chips in the supermarket are labeled because some are labeled as healthy while not all of them are. Therefore, instead of indulging in risky behavior than can compromise your diet plan, it’s better to consider natural alternatives like apples.

Calories in Apple

Lot of people have no idea concerning how many calories in an apple might be. Surprisingly, 100 grams of apple has about 52 calories which is much lower than most snacks in the market. Moreover, there are countless other snack alternatives such as baked chips, protein shakes along with breads but as they say, nothing beats the natural.

The Secret to Glowing Skin

Some people who have acne are told to consume apples daily due to the fact that they can help the body to absorb Vitamin C which is essential in battling diseases. Some reports also suggest that eating apples can drastically reduce sebum which is responsible for oiliness of the skin.

These are a handful of the benefits that apples provide. This list of wonders is just a few information provided regarding the number of health benefits that apples provide but it can be more than enough in order to convince people to stop consuming unhealthy snacks in the market. As people normally say, great things come in small packages.


Murrieta’s Best Cash For Gold and Diamond Buyer

Need Money Sell Gold To Crown Gold Exchange

How To Get Cash Today

Time are rough and you need money. You could look around your house for items to sell, to pawn, you could get one of those crazy payday loans or a title loan but you know how awful those things are but what if there were a better way. The better way is with gold exchange. With gold exchange you take something of high value, gold items, and sell them for cash. It is fast, fair, fun and you get the money that you need. Talk to Crown Gold Exchange in Corona, Hemet, Chino, Victorville, Ontario, Riverside, Murrieta, Palm Desert, Redlands, Rancho Santa Margarita, San Bernardino, West Covina, Downey, Carlsbad, and Montclair today about selling your gold. Click here for directions

The Embarrassment of Pawning, Payday Loans and Title Loans

Dude, where’s your car, iPhone, X Box, TV? When you pawn your stuff it is gone and it is usually things that you use everyday. When you pawn some old gold jewelry you really aren’t missing something you use everyday, you are only out a trinket but you get cash in return and this cash is clean and clear of can’t say when you get any sort of loan. If you want your money clean and free of the stench of debt, then you have to do business with Crown Gold Exchange and get the cash that you need.

Privately Get The Money You Need

Privacy is a big thing, you don’t want everyone knowing your business. With Crown Gold Exchange in Murrieta you don’t have to go into a loud shop and be among a lot of people. Instead, you can privately get the money you want. People who have done those deals with the devil high interest sharks know how bad it is. When you sell gold, you are exchanging value for value,not desperation for debt. Morally and ethically, gold exchange is the best way to go and the only way that doesn’t leave any jagged edges, interest payments, loss, stress pain or another need for an influx of cash to pay a loan.

One Great Benefit

Cash For Gold MurrietaOne great benefit of using Crown Gold Exchange is that is private, fast and easy. Have you ever been into a title loan or pawn shop? If you have been into one of those places, then you know how horrible the are. If you ever had a loan from them you also know how horrible those are. You really don’t want to do that. You want your money fast, clear and right now. When you sell golf that is what you get.

Putting It All Together

Gold is worth a lot of money, more than it did a few months ago or even a few years ago. If you look at the chart of gold, you will see that it has been soaring in value. If you have gold, then you have something of value that can be sold. This means that you do not need to take out any loans or doing anything embarrassing to get cash. Crown Gold Exchange is in the business of giving you cash for gold.

Sell Your Used and Refurbished Medical Equipment

If you have used medical equipment that you would like to sell, listing them on Med Standard (the online used medical equipoment buyer), might be the answer you are looking for. Med Standard is a company that buys and sells used medical equipment, facilitating deals and helping both parties come out feeling great about their deals. By doing so we help you provide the level of care your patients have grown to expect, and ensure you have the necessary equipment on hand for optimal results.

Many hospitals and clinics are able to easily purchase and update their equipment as soon as there is an upgraded version, even though their old equipment is still fairly new and in working order. The used equipment is then put up for sale for a fraction of the original price, creating an amazing opportunity for other medical facilities to get quality products at a bargain price.

Devices offered and refurbished: C-ARM, EEG Machines, MRI, Respiratory, Heart Lung Machines, Mammography Machines, Medical Imaging Equipment, Patient Monitors, Radiology Machines, Stress Test Systems Machines, Surgical Lights, X-Ray Machines, X-Ray Machines, Wheelchairs, Oxygen Tank Concentrators, Ultrasound, Ultrasound Transducers, Anesthesia Machines, Bone Densitometry Machines, C-Arm Machines, Cardiology Machines, Cath Lab Machines, CT Scanner Machines, ECG and EKG Machines, EMG Machines and Endoscopy Machines.

The idea is simple, buy new equipment and sell the old ones, right? Sadly it is usually not that straight forward, and finding a buyer for used hospital equipment isn’t always easy to do. This is where comes into play, we help you buy putting buyers and sellers in contact so they can each get what they need out of the sale.

Refurbished medical equipment for doctors.
Because we value you as a customer we also take the time to evaluate the equipment, this will help in determining it’s worth and what a fair price should be. Our full range of services is unique, providing an avenue for medical organizations to successfully retire old equipment, while helping others upgrade or add new equipment to their practice, medical center or clinic.

Check out the following devices that you can purchase with our sellers: C-ARM, CT Scanner Machines, ECG and EKG Machines, EMG Machines, Endoscopy Machines, Heart Lung Machines, Mammography Machines, Medical Imaging Equipment, Patient Monitors, Radiology Machines, Stress Test Systems Machines, Surgical Lights, X-Ray Machines, EEG Machines, MRI, Respiratory, Ultrasound, Ultrasound Transducers, Anesthesia Machines, Bone Densitometry Machines, C-Arm Machines, Cardiology Machines, Cath Lab Machines, X-Ray Machines, Wheelchairs, & Oxygen Tank Concentrators.

Another advantage to using is that our organization has global contacts, expanding the pool of potential buyers and helping to ensure you successfully sell your equipment. Even large ticket items, such as MRI machines can be sent overseas to clinics around the globe.

If you have medical equipment that you need to sell, the professionals at can help you get in touch with buyers who are interested in what you have to offer. Our global connections mean an expanded buyer pool, and a better chance at getting the price you want for the used equipment. As a full service company, we can help in assessing the value of the item to ensure the price is fair, and neither party feels poorly about the deal. Sell your used medical equipment today, with Med Standard.

Orlando Wedding Photo Booths For Hire

Photos Are More Fun With Photo Magic of Florida

photo-booth-rental-florida (1)Planning a celebration? Want to make the memories last? You’d be glad to know Photo Magic of Florida just checked in with their photo booth rentals.
Plain old picture taking is such a bore. You hire a photographer, which we presume costs a hefty amount of money, to photograph people. It may be nice to pose for photos, but where’s the fun in that? Chances are, your guests would want to have their own copies of the photo. Who wants to wait for the pictures to be uploaded on Facebook when you can have them in a matter of minutes?
The new generation of photo booths offers visitors two choices between black and white or colored pictures. Customers can choose as many as 8 of their best photos on 2 strips. It gets better, the compact setup helps make the booth simple and easy to install. It can be placed almost anywhere without having to worry about it getting in the way. It’s ideal for graduation parties, corporate occasions, birthday parties and so much more. Visit our website to learn more.

Photo Magic of Florida has photo experts on standby when you rent a photo booth. They have creative ways to help the customers customize their photos. Want scrapbook-worthy photos? The photo booths have fun and fascinating interactive methods to showcase photo booth picture strips.

Pictures document important events like weddings and parties, but in addition they also excite the people who attend such events. Anybody who wants to get the best memories out of their event should hire Photo Magic of Florida. Not only will their photo booths entertain your guests, the company’s services are spot on. Your photo needs will be handled with care and efficiency that only Photo Miracle of Florida can give you.

Check out the company’s official website for a complete listing of the company’s offers. You can rent a photo booth at your next party or event. It’s a terrific way to collect memories. Not only will you get hard copies of the photos, you can also access the digitized version of the photos through the internet. You can also access it on any device, whether it’s a computer or mobile phone.

You can access the company’s services throughout the entire state of Florida, including Fort Lauderdale, Hialeah, Jacksonville City, Miami, Polk, St. Petersburg, Orlando, and Tallahassee.

So what are you waiting for? Photo Magic of Florida is just a click away. They will help you capture every moment of your event and provide your guests with fun no old photographer can give you. All you need to do is contact the company’s representative and you’ll have the chance to book an excellent photo booth. Whatever event you have planned Photo Magic is always ready for you.

While you can contact the company online for your photo booth rental fees in Orlando, Miami, Jacksonville City Tallahassee, and Polk FL party needs, you can rent a photo booth for an event outside of those cities. Just give Photo Magic of Florida a call.

Why Exercising Faith In God Is Very Important

Faith is a vital tenet of Christianity that anyone who’s been serving God is well aware of. Our faith in God is nothing more than us reaching back to God on the ground of the finished work of Christ Jesus on the cross of Calvary. In all honesty, it’s not easy at all to exercise the kind of faith that God requires of us, especially when we’re going through tough time. Nonetheless, faith is something that’s both life-changing and powerful in many ways. When faith is applied correctly, it has the power to change people’s lives in an astonishing fashion. In addition to applying faith correctly; the peace, joy, and strength that we have as believer is associated with the type of we’re exercising in God.

Faith And Grace

It’s very important to come to the realization that faith along with grace walks hand in hand. The main reason lies with the fact that God in all His love for humanity has already made everything essential readily available by grace through His Son Christ Jesus. We don’t really need anything other than what was accomplished for us by our Lord and Savior. The grace of God is the very channel through which everything that God has promised us in His word can be inherited. His grace is sufficient (2 Corinthians 12:9); in other words, His grace covers every aspect of our lives. But, we have a critical responsibility that we must assume in response to that grace, so that the very things promised to us can be brought forth into our lives.

When it comes down to how God operates, He’s always the One who initiates the first move by doing what He thinks is the best thing to do in order to deal with an issue. But after that, He’s patiently waiting for us to make the next move with a sense of urgency by acknowledging the importance of what He’s done for us and what He wants to do within us in relation to what was done. It’s an area where God has placed a strict restriction upon Himself in the sense that He’ll never do anything that falls within our own responsibility. In that case, we have no choice but to respond to God though our faith accordingly.

What Can We Learn About Faith?

According to the Word of God faith is defined as the confidence in what we hope for along with assurance about what we do not see (Hebrews 11:1). In that context, it’s absolutely to come to the conclusion that if something can be seen, then it can no longer be faith as a result. With respect to whom we should place our faith, God is the object of our faith. The foundation of faith is rested upon who He is. Furthermore, there is an inseparable relationship between the Word of God and faith.

The Word is what teaches us how to have faith in God. In fact, faith has to be mixed with the Word of God in order for results to be produced. As scripture says in (Romans 10:7) faith comes from hearing, and hearing through the word of Christ. God is infallible, so is His Word. Thereby, the type of faith that we have in God can never fail because the person that our faith is placed into can never fail.

Faith is what holds our Christian life. Even though, obedience is very important when it comes to serve God, but faith is the starting point of obedience. In other words, our faith in God pushes us to obey Him. Most importantly, faith is what moved us to accept Christ as our Lord and Savior. As the Bible says, we’re saved by grace through faith according to (Ephesians 2:8). It’s quite clear to notice that our faith from salvation to glorification is centered upon having faith in God.

Lastly, because faith in God through Christ is what leads to eternal life; consequently, people’s eternity will be determined by their willing to place their faith in Christ. As believers, our faith is what connects with a God that we cannot even see and touch. It’s the very element that makes us become righteous and acceptable in God’s sight. It’s what transforms us into people that can trust when it comes to fulfilling His will. As a final point, without faith it’s impossible to please God (Hebrews 11:6).

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Heavy metals and pesticides threaten

cultivation-of-strawberriesThe Estero de Domingo Rubio wetland, located near the Marismas del Odiel Natural Area in the Huelva estuary, is regionally, nationally and internationally protected thanks to its ecological value. However, its tributary rivers and the Ra de Huelva estuary pump manmade pollutants into it, which could affect its water quality and ecosystem.

Industrial activity, accumulations of dangerous waste, the expansion of farming, and excessive extraction of sand and gravel for the construction industry are the leading threats to the Estero de Domingo Rubio wetland, the tidal system of which plays a “crucial” role in transporting and dispersing pollutants.

The wetland is “periodically flooded with high levels of dissolved elements such as copper (Cu), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chrome (Cr), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn), which come from the water entering the estuary, which is affected by pollution from the mining industry”, Cinta Barba-Brioso, co-author of the study and a researcher at the University of Seville (US), tells SINC.

The study, which has recently been reported in the Marine Pollution Bulletin, shows that the wetland’s tidal channel also receives acid lixiviates (liquid pollutants) that come from the dumping of sulphurous waste, industrial waste outflow pipes, and abandoned chemical plants, which all contribute to its metallic “enrichment”.

Barba-Brioso says: “Agriculture is another significant source of diffuse contamination in the wetland” with nitrates and phosphates entering through agricultural runoff. “Domingo Rubio also receives inflows of phosphates from the Huelva estuary from the phosphogypsum stacks on the right hand banks of the Tinto river”, the researcher explains.

Agriculture also generates pesticide concentrations in the water that “generally exceed the vulnerability levels set for wetlands by the European Commission (CCEE)”, she stresses. “This contamination by agrochemicals could be prevented if there was greater control over the inflow of herbicides and fertilisers”.

An altered ecosystem.

Prior studies have used molecular biomarkers to document the biological consequences of pollution in the area and its effects on soils and plants in the wetland region.

To this must be added the alteration to local hydrodynamics, which has “a negative effect on the ecosystem, modifies the natural levels of heavy elements in it, and puts the wildlife communities that live in it at risk”, points out Barba-Brioso.

The construction of roads has formed hydrological barriers in the upper parts of the Estero de Domingo Rubio, meaning the wetland now has two distinct hydrological and environmental areas one marshland zone, with abundant halophile vegetation (characteristic of saline soils), and a lagoon zone with aquatic and riverbank vegetation.

“Both of these zones are drained by a network of ephemeral tributaries, which are affected by intensively irrigated crops and industrial activities”, the researcher says. The lagoon area and the streams in the river basin are “also affected by the lixiviates from this intensive agriculture, above all from the strawberry farming that is carried out in the area”, the scientist explains.

However, the scientists say that hydrological restoration and environmental improvement work is currently being carried out in the area of the Estero lagoon by the Junta de Andaluc�a regional government and the European Union by means of the European Regional Development Fund.

New software quantifies leaf venation networks

quantifies-leaf-venation-networksPlant biologists are facing pressure to quantify the response of plants to changing environments and to breed plants that can respond to such changes. One method of monitoring the response of plants to different environments is by studying their vein network patterns. These networks impact whole plant photosynthesis and the mechanical properties of leaves, and vary between species that have evolved or have been bred under different environmental conditions.

To help address the challenge of how to quickly examine a large quantity of leaves, scientists at the Georgia Institute of Technology have developed a user-assisted software tool that extracts macroscopic vein structures directly from leaf images.

“The software can be used to help identify genes responsible for key leaf venation network traits and to test ecological and evolutionary hypotheses regarding the structure and function of leaf venation networks,” said Joshua Weitz, an assistant professor in the Georgia Tech School of Biology.

The program, called Leaf Extraction and Analysis Framework Graphical User Interface (LEAF GUI), enables researchers and breeders to measure the properties of thousands of veins much more quickly than manual image analysis tools.

Details of the LEAF GUI software program were reported in the “Breakthrough Technologies” section of the recent issue of the journal Plant Physiology Development of the software, which is available for download at, was supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the Burroughs Welcome Fund.

LEAF GUI is a user-assisted software tool that takes an image of a leaf and, following a series of interactive steps to clean up the image, returns information on the structure of that leaf’s vein networks. Structural measurements include the dimensions, position and connectivity of all network veins, and the dimensions, shape and position of all non-vein areas, called areoles.

“The network extraction algorithms in LEAF GUI enable users with no technical expertise in image analysis to quantify the geometry of entire leaf networks — overcoming what was previously a difficult task due to the size and complexity of leaf venation patterns,” said the paper’s main author Charles Price, who worked on the project as a postdoctoral fellow at Georgia Tech. Price is now an assistant professor of plant biology at the University of Western Australia.

While the Georgia Tech research team is currently using the software to extract network and areole information from leaves imaged under a wide range of conditions, LEAF GUI could also be used for other purposes, such as leaf classification and description.

“Because the software and the underlying code are freely available, other researchers have the option of modifying methods as necessary to answer specific questions or improve upon current approaches,” said Price.

28699_relIMAGE: Three leaves show the results of vein segmentation and analysis. The zoomed-in regions on the right correspond to the area within the black square of the leaf to the left.

LEAF GUI is not the only software program Weitz’s group has developed to investigate the network characteristics of plants. In March 2010, Weitz’s group co-authored another “Breakthrough Technologies” paper in Plant Physiology detailing a way to analyze the complex root network structure of crop plants, with a focus on rice.

This work waccording toformed in collaboration with Anjali Iyer-Pascuzzi, John Harer and Philip Benfey at Duke University and was supported by DARPA, the National Science Foundation and the Burroughs Welcome Fund.

“Both of these software programs are enabling tools in the growing field of ‘plant phenomics,’ which aims to correlate gene function, plant performance and response to the environment,” noted Weitz. “By identifying leaf vein characteristics and root structures that differ between plants, we are enabling advances in basic plant science and, in the case of crop plants, assisting scientists in identifying and potentially altering genes to improve plant health, yield and survival.”

How isolated are mountain top plant populations?

penstemon-pachyphyllusDo mountain tops act as sky islands for species that live at high elevations? Are plant populations on these mountain tops isolated from one another because the valleys between them act as barriers, or can pollinators act as bridges allowing genes to flow among distant populations?

Dr. Andrea Kramer and his colleagues from the Chicago Botanic Garden and the University of Illinois at Chicago were interested in pursuing these questions, especially for a genus of plants, Penstemon (Plantaginaceae), endemic to the Great Basin region of the Western United States. They published their findings in the recent issue of the American Journal of Botany (

The flow of genetic material between populations maintains a species. In plants, if populations are separated by a landscape barrier such that pollen or seeds are unable to traverse either over or through, then the populations will begin to differ, either via mutations or genetic drift over time. However, habitat fragmentation and distance may not always be barriers, depending on the species and their modes of dispersal. And sometimes studies surprise us with their findings.

“These questions become increasingly important in places like the Great Basin as we consider the effects of climate change on native plant communities and the wildlife that depend upon them,” Kramer commented. “The majority of the Great Basin region’s species diversity is located on mountain tops, and as a generally warming climate drives species to higher elevations, the distance between mountaintop plant populations increases and more is mandatory of the pollinators in order to traverse the arid valleys between them.”

Kramer and her colleagues chose Penstemon because these plants provide critical resources for pollinators and other wildlife. But, as Kramer notes, “Until recently they haven’t been used in large-scale restoration projects because key research needed to guide restoration of these species hasn’t been available. Without an understanding of the population genetic structure of natural populations it is very difficult to determine what seed sources should be used where to ensure maximum success of a restoration.” .

The authors selected three Penstemon species with similar dispersal modes, a key element to the study design. For all three, seeds are dispersed by gravity and are not likely to be moved very far thus, any long-distance movement of genes (or gene flow) should primarily be due to movement of pollen. This critical aspect is where the species differ: Penstemon deustus and P. pachyphyllus are both pollinated primarily by bees, while P. rostriflorus is pollinated primarily by hummingbirds.

For each species the authors were able to sample individuals from 6 to 8 populations on 4 to 6 mountain ranges. By extracting genomic DNA from leaf tissues and using molecular analytical tools they identified up to 8 polymorphic microsatellite loci and used these data to determine patterns of gene diversity both within each population on a mountain top and between more distant populations found on other mountain tops. They then pieced this information together to assess the degree of genetic relatedness among the different populations.

The authors found interesting differences between the bee- and bird-pollinated Penstemon Eventhough all three species had significant genetic differentiation among the populations, the two bee-pollinated species were found to have genetic clusters that were distinct for each mountain range, with little or no mixing between mountain ranges; the bird-pollinated species had far less genetic structure across all the ranges sampled. Thus, hummingbirds seem to be more effective at crossing large distances and pollinating flowers from distinct mountains than bees. Bees either do not cross the arid valley floors to visit populations on neighboring mountains or, if they do, they appears to be ineffective at transferring pollen across these long distances. In contrast, hummingbirds appears to be transferring pollen across very large distances additional analysis indicated that hummingbirds appears to be visiting populations 19 km apart within a mountain range and over 100 km apart on different mountain ranges.

One of the take-home messages from this is that the interaction between pollinators and their landscape differs for different species, and yet this very interaction can have a significant impact on the genetic structure of a plant species’ populations. In addition, their results suggest that pollination syndromes do not just capture the morphology and likely pollinators of flowers, but may also impact the population structure and genetic isolation of populations.

There are evolutionary implications as well. Hummingbird pollination has arisen independently in Penstemon at least 10 times, and possibly as a number of as 20 times, yet a shift back to bee pollination has never been reported. The results from this study may shed light on why that might be. Because populations of a bird-pollinated plant experience greater gene flow among distant populations, there is greater connectivity among these populations. Any changes that might arise due to the local presence of bees would be negated by the gene flow facilitated by birds, which would constrain any adaptations at the local level and prevent plants from shifting back to a more confined bee-pollination syndrome.

Furthermore, the results from Kramer’s work can be used directly in restoration efforts. “The Bureau of Land Management is working to increase the species diversity and success of large-scale restoration work on public land in the western United States,” Kramer notes. “The BLM supported this work and will be able to put the results of this research on Penstemon to use in developing seed transfer zones for these and similar animal-pollinated species.” .

Kramer’s next step is to determine whether the patterns of neutral genetic diversity they identified translate to similar patterns in adaptive genetic diversity. “The Great Basin is an amazing place full of incredible climatic and geological extremes, and we are very interested in understanding how these extremes drive population divergence due to, or in spite of, the differences in gene flow we observed,” she said.

Wheat resistance genes failing

wheat-resistance-genes-failingA number of of the genes that allow wheat to ward off Hessian flies are no longer effective in the southeastern United States, and care should be taken to ensure that resistance genes that so far haven’t been utilized in commercial wheat lines are used prudently, as per U.S. Department of Agriculture and Purdue University scientists.

An analysis of wheat lines carrying resistance genes from dozens of locations throughout the Southeast showed that some give little or no resistance to the Hessian fly, a major pest of wheat that can cause millions of dollars in damage to wheat crops each year. Others, even those considered the most effective, are allowing wheat to become susceptible to the fly larvae, which feed on and kill the plants.

Wheat resistance genes recognize avirulent Hessian flies and activate a defense response that kills the fly larvae attacking the plant. However, this leads to strains of the fly that can overcome resistant wheat, much like insects becoming resistant to pesticides.

“The number of genes available to protect wheat is limited. There really aren’t that a number of,” said Richard Shukle, a research scientist with the USDA Agricultural Research Service Crop Production and Pest Control Research Unit and Purdue adjunct associate professor of entomology. “In the Southeast, having multiple generations of Hessian fly each year enhances the ability of these flies to overcome wheat’s resistance”.

Sue Cambron, a USDA Agricultural Research Service research support scientist, received Hessian flies from 20 locations in Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Louisiana and used them to infest 21 varieties of wheat that each contained different resistance genes, most of which have been deployed in commercial wheat, and a few that haven’t yet. While the study did not include all of the 33 named resistance genes, it did show that only five of the 21 genes reviewed would provide effective resistance to flies in the Southeast, and none was effective in all the Southeast locations.

“Even some of the newer genes that haven’t been deployed in cultivars weren’t too effective,” Cambron said.

That’s because flies have likely interacted with, and adapted to, those genes already, said Brandi Schemerhorn, a USDA-ARS entomologist and Purdue assistant professor of entomology. She said it’s possible that some of the genes were introduced to flies unintentionally in plots where wheat cultivars with those genes were being tested for suitability to Southeast climates. The resistance genes also could have come from other plants, such as rye, and the flies may already have started to overcome those genes.

Schemerhorn said she suspects a certain number of flies in any population have the ability to overcome any wheat resistance gene, which defends against the flies’ ability to feed on the plant and starves the insect larvae. When a resistance gene kills off some of the flies, the survivors breed and eventually establish a population that renders the gene ineffective.

“We’re creating a system in which the fly is becoming more virulent,” Schemerhorn said. “What we have to do is slow down that adaptation or virulence”.

Shukle and Schemerhorn suggest stacking genes in a wheat cultivar. There are only a few genes that haven’t been deployed, and they believe combining two of those would be the best option.

“With a small number of identified resistance genes, we can’t afford to release wheat lines with only one resistance gene,” Shukle said. “If you deploy two different resistance genes, it’s unlikely that a population of flies could overcome both of them”.

Schemerhorn is working to combine two of the unreleased genes for testing with Hessian fly populations.